NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a chemical found in every cell of the body.  It is a primary facilitator of energy production in the energy making factories in our cells called mitochondria.  Mitochondria are present by the billions in the cells of our body and are where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced.  ATP is the basic energy molecule of life. When nutrients such as glucose are oxidized in the mitochondria, NAD+ is converted to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride).  NADH is essential for cellular energy production.

       While our body produces NAD+, such production steadily decreases as we age. The result is that levels of NAD+ steadily decline resulting in reduced cellular energy.  Reduced cellular energy leads to cellular malfunction and subsequent disease.  By increasing NAD+ levels, we can maintain higher energy levels and slow down the biological aging process.

       NAD+ has been shown to increase the level of sirtuins in the body.  Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that are critical to the control of gene expression, general metabolism and various activities taking place in cellular mitochondria. They appear to regulate the distribution of energy in the body. In so doing, they have a strong influence on the aging process in that the more sirtuins there are, the better the body utilizes energy and the slower biological aging occurs.  It has been found that calorie restriction increases the number and activity of sirtuins which results in longer life for an organism.  Calorie restriction has long been known to increase longevity.         While calorie restriction will increase the number and activity of sirtuins in the body, a metabolite of vitamin B3 (niacin) called nicotinamide riboside (NR) will do the same. Metabolites are the intermediate products of metabolic reactions catalyzed by various enzymes that naturally occur within cells. NR has been found to be a precursor to the production of NAD+ in the body.  By increasing levels of NAD+ you increase levels of sirtuins.  Studies show that NR increases the number of mitochondria throughout the body. By increasing the number of mitochondria, you increase energy levels and in so doing slow down the biological aging process.             Various animal studies have shown an anti-aging effect when increasing NAD+ and sirtuin levels in the body.  A human study reported in October 2016 in the journal Nature Communications showed NR supplementation resulted in an increase in NAD+. This human trial involved six healthy men and six healthy women who each received single oral doses of 100 mg, 300 mg, or 1,000 mg of NR in different sequences with a seven-day gap between doses. After each dose, blood and urine samples were analyzed to measure various metabolites of NAD+. This study showed that NR supplementation increased NAD+ by amounts directly related to the dose.  While this study was not designed to show what anti-aging results if any were derived from this increase in NAD+, animal studies have shown anti-aging results and it is firmly believed that future human studies will demonstrate the same.         As already discussed, NAD+ increases the level of sirtuins in the body which has been found to slow down biological aging.  Increase levels of NAD+ and you increase levels of sirtuins.  NR has been shown to raise levels of NAD+ which in turn raises sirtuin levels. A substance called resveratrol, found in red wine, red grapes and blueberries will also increase  sirtuin levels.  Both NR and resveratrol are available as a supplement.


       There appears to be ample evidence that NR increases NAD+ levels in the body which in turn increases sirtuin levels.  Since we know how NAC+ and sirtuins work in the body, it would seem reasonable to conclude that increasing these chemicals should produce a slower rate of biological aging.  We already know that raising sirtuins through calorie restriction does increase longevity. 

       While eating less and thus lowering our calorie intake is a very natural means of slowing the rate of biological aging, this is probably not an attractive option for most people. For those interesting in raising their NAD+ and sirtuin levels without having to go on a low calorie diet, NR can be taken as a supplement.  As noted above, NR has been found to be a precursor to the production of NRD+ which leads to increased levels of sirtuins.  At Milk ‘N Honey we carry a product from the company Life Extension called NAD+ Cell Regenerator which provides 300 mg per capsule of NR (nicotinamide riboside).

      As mentioned above, a substance called resveratrol has also been shown to raise sirtuin levels.  At Milk ‘N Honey, we carry resveratrol as a supplement from the companies Enzymatic Therapy and Now.